SCREEN TIME VS. DREAM TIME
Even before the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, parents were grappling with the effects of screen time on their children’s sleep habits. Now, with so much of the world moving online, kids’ screen time has increased drastically, and many old routines are out the window. Experts agree that proper rest is essential for children of all ages, and unhealthy digital habits that develop now will only be harder to break in the future. With that in mind, Children and Screens: Institute of Digital Media and Child Development has brought together the leading researchers, clinicians, and experts to provide parents with these useful tips for helping kids get the sleep they need.
For more guidance and resources, be sure to tune in to our next “Ask The Experts” seminar on Wednesday, August 12, at 12pm ET via Zoom. Renowned sleep researcher and physician Dr. Charles Czeisler of Harvard Medical School will moderate the session, and he’ll be joined by a group of distinguished experts who will answer your questions and bring you the latest research on sleep and screens with practical, science-based advice designed to foster the health, development, and well-being of your whole family. RSVP here. “Ask the Experts” is a popular weekly series hosted by Children and Screens with viewership from all 50 states and over 30 countries.
NO PHONE ZONE
Parents who bring their phones into the bedroom are more likely to have children who bring their phones into the bedroom. In order to wake up feeling more fully rested and recharged, I recommend that families have a central place to put all phones away about an hour before bedtime. To get started, it may be helpful to set an alarm on your device to indicate when it’s time to disconnect, and some may even want to keep that central charging place under lock and key. — Dr. Wendy Troxel, Senior Behavioral and Social Scientist, RAND Corporation
LOG OFF TO NOD OFF
Avoiding screens in the hour before bedtime will help facilitate sleep onset and provide better quality sleep at night. Other important sleep hygiene tips include setting a regular bedtime, following consistent routines (e.g., bathing, brushing teeth, reading). – Dr. Jean-Philippe Chaput, Research Scientist, CHEO Research Institute, Ottawa, Canada
LET THERE BE LIGHT
Be strategic about when your child is exposed to screens and other light sources throughout the day. Morning light can increase, advance, or entrain your child’s circadian sleep rhythm (internal sleep clock), making him or her feel more alert in the morning and more tired at bedtime. Evening light, on the other hand, can inhibit the release of melatonin, a hormone that prepares us for sleep. When possible, concentrate screen use for e-learning earlier in the day, keep the blinds open, and get outside early and often! – Sarah Morsbach Honaker, PhD, DBSM, Indiana University School of Medicine
LOOK TO THE BOOKS
We don’t need to remind you how much better kids do on some kind of schedule – the payoff in their behavior and your sanity is priceless. But, have you ever considered establishing some sort of reading routine with your child? Not only can reading replace screen-time, it’s a great and calm way to connect with children. Even if it’s just for 10-15 minutes a night, a reading routine can benefit children’s brain development, and it will create memories your kids will cherish forever. – Kim West, LCSW-C, aka the Sleep Lady
GET (IT) OUT OF BED
Keep the bedroom, and especially your child’s bed, as a device-free zone. Don’t use devices in bed during the day, as we want the brain to associate that environment with sleep. With kids home most of the time now due to the pandemic, it can be easier to slip into habits of lying in bed and using devices during the daytime hours, but this can make it more challenging to fall asleep in that environment at night. Keeping devices out of the bedroom will help the brain follow more consistent routines and sleep habits. – Nicole Beurkens, PhD, Horizons Developmental Resource Center
POWER DOWN EARLY
The later we stay up using devices, the less time we have for sleep. In addition, using screens in the evening can make it harder to fall asleep due to psychological, emotional, or physical arousal. Time spent in front of screens—if long enough, bright enough, and late enough in the evening—can also push our daily timing system back, which makes falling asleep even more difficult. For a restful night, reduce the amount and intensity of evening screen time, and have a solid plan for your child’s sleep schedule. – Mary A Carskadon, PhD, Professor, Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, EP Bradley Hospital Sleep Research Lab
BAD SCREENS LEAD TO BAD DREAMS
Avoid anxiety-provoking media, especially later in the day. When children consume content that’s emotionally overstimulating, such as a scary video or news story, it can lead to difficulties with sleep at night. Kids can fixate on those scary images or stories when they lie down to sleep, and being alone in the dark can exacerbate their fears. Use parental controls to help limit your children’s exposure to distressing content, and remember to be aware of any content you’re consuming that your kids might be able to see or hear, as well. – Nicole Beurkens, PhD, Horizons Developmental Resource Center
YOURS, MINE, AND HOURS
Virtually all material delivered on screens is designed to keep us engaged and watching, but it’s important to make sure kids get a full night’s sleep for their physical, mental, and emotional development. Children ages 2-9 require 10.5-12 hours per night, while young teens should get 9-10 hours, and older teens need 8.5-9.5 hours. Effective techniques for making sure your kids get enough rest include establishing a regular bedtime routine, modeling healthy examples of screen use, making the bedroom a screen-free zone, and requiring them to shut down all electronics an hour before bedtime (30 minutes can work for children over 13). If your teen must be on a screen at night for homework, use a blue light blocker app. – Daniel Lewin, PhD, Associate Director of the Pediatric Sleep Medicine and Director of the Pulmonary Behavioral Medicine Program at Children’s National
MODEL THE MESSAGE
With the whole family at home, our kids are extra aware of our daily habits. Teens and tweens are wired to look for unfairness, and they definitely notice when adults are watching shows late at night, using email or social media from bed, or keeping an irregular sleep schedule now that there isn’t a morning commute. Make a commitment as a whole family to put media devices down 30 minutes before bedtime and to keep regular sleep and wake times. Come up with creative ways to hold each other accountable, like using a tracking log, screen time features and apps, or a Fitbit. – Michelle M. Garrison, PhD. Associate Professor, University of Washington School of Public Health, School of Medicine, and Seattle Children’s Research Institute.
TAKE CHARGE OF YOUR CHARGE
Charge your devices outside of the bedroom! You don’t need access to them in the middle of the night or to wake up. In fact, you can buy a nice digital alarm clock for less than $20. – Lauren Hale, PhD, Founding Editor-in-Chief, Sleep Health, Professor of Family, Population and Preventive Medicine, Core Faculty in the Program in Public Health, Renaissance School of Medicine, Stony Brook University, NY
It is important to make children’s bedrooms screen-free to ensure they get sufficient and quality sleep. However, for children with greater autonomy over their smartphone usage, it may be tricky for parents to maintain this screen-free zone. Ask your child to keep away from the smartphone or tablet once you put out the light. Where this is not possible, ask children to keep the bedside lamp on if they are using their phone in bed. Emerging evidence appears to show that children have insufficient and poor sleep when they use phones in darkness during bedtime. – Michael O. Mireku PhD, MPH, University of Lincoln, School of Psychology
Proper rest is vital to the development of children’s brains and bodies, and it’s up to parents to both establish healthy habits and to demonstrate those habits themselves. Without a doubt, COVID-19 presents new challenges to maintaining routines and limiting screen use, but the good news is that following the tips included in this newsletter will benefit not just children, but parents, as well. And who couldn’t use a better night’s sleep?
About Children and Screens
Since its inception in 2013, Children and Screens: Institute of Digital Media and Child Development, has become one of the nation’s leading non-profit organizations dedicated to advancing and supporting interdisciplinary scientific research, enhancing human capital in the field, informing and educating the public, and advocating for sound public policy for child health and wellness. For more information, see www.childrenandscreens.com or write to [email protected]